(Manual edited to 0010500 Revision 63 - Model 40electric) (Manual edited to 0010489 Revision 57 - Model 45electric) January 31, 2007 - Revised Manual October 29, 2010 - Revised Manual. REVISION LOG B 3120744. 3120744 i FIGURE NO. TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION 1 - FRAME. NE40E X1&NE40E X2 Product Description - Free ebook download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read book online for free. This tutorial explains how to configure static routing step by step in detail including advantage of static routing and disadvantage of static routing. Learn how to enable, configure, manage and delete static route in Cisco router with practical example in packet tracer.
This tutorial explains how to configure static routing step by step in detail including advantage of static routing and disadvantage of static routing. Learn how to enable, configure, manage and delete static route in Cisco router with practical example in packet tracer.
Static routing is the most secure way of routing. It reduces overhead from network resources. In this type of routing we manually add routes in routing table. It is useful where numbers of route are limited. Like other routing methods static routing also has its pros and cons.
Advantage of static routing
- It is easy to implement.
- It is most secure way of routing, since no information is shared with other routers.
- It puts no overhead on resources such as CPU or memory.
Disadvantage of static routing
- It is suitable only for small network.
- If a link fails it cannot reroute the traffic.
To explain static routing, I will use packet tracer network simulator software. You can use any network simulator software or can use a real Cisco devices to follow this guide. There is no difference in output as long as your selected software contains the commands explained in this tutorial.
Create a practice lab as shown in following figure or download this pre-created practice lab and load in packet tracer
If require, you can download the latest as well as earlier version of Packet Tracer from here. Download Packet Tracer
|Device||Connected from||Connected to||IP Address|
|Router0||Serial 0/0/0||Router1’s serial0/0/0||192.168.0.253/30|
Assign IP address to PCs
Assign IP address 10.0.0.2/8 to PC0.
Repeat same process for PC1 and assign IP address 184.108.40.206/8.
Assign IP address to interfaces of routers
Double click Router0 and click CLI and press Enter key to access the command prompt of Router0.
Two interfaces FastEthernet0/0 and Serial0/0/0 of Router0 are used in this topology. By default interfaces on router are remain administratively down during the start up.
We need to configure IP address and other parameters on interfaces before we could actually use them for routing. Interface mode is used to assign IP address and other parameters. Interface mode can be accessed from global configuration mode. Following commands are used to access the global configuration mode.
From global configuration mode we can enter in interface mode. From there we can configure the interface. Following commands will assign IP address on FastEthernet0/0.
interface fastEthernet 0/0 command is used to enter in interface mode.
ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 command will assign IP address to interface.
no shutdown command will bring the interface up.
exit command is used to return in global configuration mode.
Serial interface needs two additional parameters clock rate and bandwidth. Every serial cable has two ends DTE and DCE. These parameters are always configured at DCE end.
We can use show controllers interface command from privilege mode to check the cable’s end.
Fourth line of output confirms that DCE end of serial cable is attached. If you see DTE here instead of DCE skip these parameters.
Now we have necessary information let’s assign IP address to serial interface.
Router#configure terminal Command is used to enter in global configuration mode.
Router(config)#interface serial 0/0/0 Command is used to enter in interface mode.
Router(config-if)#ip address 192.168.0.253 255.255.255.252 Command assigns IP address to interface. For serial link we usually use IP address from /30 subnet.
Router(config-if)#clock rate 64000 And Router(config-if)#bandwidth 64 In real life environment these parameters control the data flow between serial links and need to be set at service providers end. In lab environment we need not to worry about these values. We can use these values.
Router(config-if)#no shutdown Command brings interface up.
Router(config-if)#exit Command is used to return in global configuration mode.
We will use same commands to assign IP addresses on interfaces of remaining routers. We need to provided clock rate and bandwidth only on DCE side of serial interface. Following command will assign IP addresses on interface of Router1.
Now we know how to assign IP addresses on interfaces. We will use same commands to assign IP addresses on interfaces of Router2.
Repeat same process for Router3
Great job we have finished our half journey. Now routers have information about the networks that they have on their own interfaces. Routers do not exchange network information between them on their own. We need to implement a mechanism that insists them to share this information. This mechanism is called routing.
There are two types of routing static and dynamic. In this article we will use static method of routing.
Command to configure the static route
We have two commands to configure the static route.
This is the base command that adds new routes in routing table.
This is the first parameter. It specifies the destination network address. We need to provide subnet mask if we are using sub-network. Sub-networks are the smaller network created from one large network in subnetting. If we are not using sub-network then we can omit the subnet mask value. It will parse automatically.
IP_address_of_next_hop_neighbor / interface_to_exit
This parameter provides a way to reach the destination network. Both commands use separate way to assign this value. First command provides the IP address of next hop neighbor. It tells router that if it receives a packet for destination [that we set in previous parameter], forward that packet to this next hop neighbor IP address.
Second command also do the same job but in different way. It specifies exit interface instead of next hop IP address. It tells router that if it receives a packet for the destination specified by previous parameter then exits that packet from this interface. Device attached on other end of this interface will take care of the packet.
Administrative distance is the trustworthiness of route. Route with the lowest AD value will be chosen while forwarding the packet. By default static route has two AD values depending on the previous parameter. If you have used next hop neighbor IP address, then the default AD value will be 1. If you have used exit interface, then the default AD value will be 0. This parameter allows us to create multiple static routes for the same destination. For example we can create primary and backup path for the destination network. To create backup path, we need to set AD value to higher than default, such as 2 or 3. With this configuration router will use primary path. Due to some reason if primary route fails, the router will start using backup route automatically.
When a route goes down router will remove that from routing table. Permanent parameter will keep this route in routing table even if it goes down. Its optional parameter we can omit it. Flexihub for pc. If we omit it, router will remove this route from routing table if it goes down. You might use this parameter for security reason if you never want packets to take another path.
Now we are familiar with IP route command and its parameters lets implement it in our network.
Configure Static Route
By default when a packet arrives in interface, router checks destination filed in packet and compare it with routing table. If it finds a match for destination network then it will forward that packet from related interface. If it does not find a match in routing table then it will discard that packet. This is the default behavior of router. We do not need to configure directly connected networks.
Run following command from global configuration mode in routers.
This command instructs router that when you receive a packet for 220.127.116.11 network give it to 192.168.0.254. Network 10.0.0.0 is directly connected so we do not need to configure it here.
On this router both networks are reachable via other routers so we need to configure route for both networks 10.0.0.0 and 18.104.22.168.
Same as Router1 again we need configure route for both networks on this router.
Network 22.214.171.124 is directly connected so we only need to configure network 10.0.0.0 on this router.
That’s all we need to switch packet from one network to another. To verify the result we can use ping command. Access the command prompt of PC1 and use ping command to test the connectivity from PC0.
Good going we have successfully implemented static routing in our network. For cross check we have uploaded a configured topology. You can use this if you are not getting the same output.
How to Delete Static Route
In static routing we have to manage all routes manually. If any route goes down, we have to remove that manually. Removing a route in static routing is easier than you think. All you need to do is just add a keyword no before the same command that we have used to configure the static route.
no ip route command is used to remove the route from routing table. Following commands will remove the route from their respective routes.
Configure Default Route
Static routing solves one more network problem. It can redirect all unmatched packets to a certain port. This feature is extremely helpful in several situations. We can set a default route for internet connection or we can implement a security measurement to deal with all matched packet.
By default Routers are configured to drop the packet if destination address is not found in routing table. Default route will override this behavior. If no match for destination network is found in routing table then it would be forwarded to the default route. Thus default route is a way to deal with all unmatched packets.
Following command will set default route
Above command sets destination network to 0.0.0.0/0 that represents all networks.
That’s all for this article. In next article we will configure dynamic routing.
Huawei NE40E FAQ :
Ne40e Installation Manual
22 slots, including 2 MPUs(1:1 backup), 4 SFUs(3+1 backup), and 16 LPUs
11 slots, including 2 SRUs(1:1 backup), 1 SFUs(2+1 backup), and 8 LPUs
442mm × 650mm × 620mm (14 U)
442mm × 650 mm × 220mm (AC 5 U)
Weight in full configuration
51 kg (AC)
Supports the static routing protocol and IPv4 dynamic routing protocols such as RIP, OSPF, IS-IS, and BGP-4.
Supports various technologies for transition from IPv4 to IPv6: manual tunnel configurations, automatic tunnel configurations, IPv6-to-IPv4 (6-to-4) tunneling, Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) tunneling, and Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP) tunneling.
Supports IPv4 over IPv6 tunneling and IPv6 Provider Edge Router (6PE).
Supports IPv6 dynamic routing protocols such as RIP Next Generation (RIPng), OSPFv3, IS-ISv6, and BGP4+.
Supports IPv6 neighbor discovery and path Maximum Transmission Unit (PMTU) discovery.
Supports Transmission Control Protocol Version 6 (TCP6), ping IPv6, traceroute IPv6, socket IPv6, static IPv6 Domain Name System (DNS), specifying the IPv6 DNS server, Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) IPv6 client, and IPv6 policy-based routing.
Supports Internet Control Message Protocol Version 6 (ICMPv6) Management Information Base (MIB), User Datagram Protocol Version 6 (UDP6) MIB, TCP6 MIB, and IPv6 MIB.
Supports LDP over TE, VPLS, H-VPLS, policy-based routing in VPN.
Supports MPLS L2VPNs in either Martini or Kompella mode.
Supports QinQ, MPLS/BGP L3VPN, and inter-AS VPN Option A/B/C.
Supports Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) E1, Inverse Multiplexing over ATM (IMA), and Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM) PWE3.
Layer 2 feature
Supports IEEE802.1q, IEEE802.1p, IEEE 802.3ad, and IEEE 802.1ab.
Supports the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP), Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP), RRPP, DHCP+, VLAN switching, and user binding.
Supports BGP GR, IS-IS GR, and OSPF GR.
Supports LDP GR, Resource-Reservation Protocol (RSVP) GR, and Non-Stop Forwarding (NSF).
Supports multicast NSF.
Supports BGP/IS-IS/OSPF/LDP/RSVP-TE/PIM/ISSU Non-Stop Routing (NSR).
Supports fast convergence of Interior Gateway Protocols (IGPs), BGP, and multicast routing.
Supports IP Auto FRR.
Supports BFD for the static routing protocol and protocols such as IS-IS, RSVP, LDP, TE, Label Switched Path (LSP), PW, OSPF, BGP, VRRP, PIM, and RRPP.
Supports MPLS OAM and Ethernet OAM, Y.1731.
Supports backup of service routers, PW redundancy, and PWE3 end-to-end protection.
Supports Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED), DS-TE capability with a maximum of eight CTs, five-level H-QoS scheduling, VLL/PWE3 QoS, and MPLS H-QoS.
Supports multicast replication of IPoE access users.
Supports IGMPv1, IGMPv2, IGMPv3, IGMP snooping, multicast VPN, and IPv6 multicast.
Supports multicast routing protocols: PIM-DM, PIM-SM, PIM-SSM, Multicast source Discovery Protocol (MSDP), and Multi protocol BGP (MBGP).
Supports multicast CAC.
Supports management over access users such as IP over X (IPoX) access users.
Supports user authentication protocols, such as Password Authentication Protocol (PAP), Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP), Microsoft CHAP (MSCHAP), Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS), and Huawei Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (HWTACACS).
Supports user accounting protocols, such as RADIUS, HWTACACS, and Common Open Policy Service (COPS).
Supports user authorization protocols, such as RADIUS, HWTACACS, and COPS.
Supports protocols such as COPS and Change of Authorization (CoA).
Supports ACL filtering, URPF, GTSM, and DHCP Snooping.
Supports MAC address limitation and bonding between MAC and IP.
Supports Adaptive Clock Recovery (ACR), Differential Clock Recovery (DCR), Ethernet clock synchronization, and IEEE 1588v2.
Supports TDM PWE3 and ATM PWE3
Short-term ambient temperature: –5oC to +55oC
Long-term relative humidity: 5% to 85%, non-condensing
Short-term relative humidity: 0% to 95%, non-condensing